December 24th:  Pvt. Herbert FRENCH



During early part of April 1915, the Canadian First Division moved to the front lines in front of the city of Ypres and here the German forces held the high ground and could throw fire onto the Allied positions from the north, south and the east.

It was during the day of April 22nd the enemy fired an artillery barrage of poison gas and with the wind the gas moved over the French lines and their troops either fled or died and the result was a 4 mile wide hole in the Allied lines. The Germans advanced and were close to sweep in behind the Canadian trenches. Poor planning on the part of the enemy severely limited his advance to 2 miles at which time he dug in.

During the darkness hours of April 22-23 the Canadians worked to plug the gap and they mounted a counter-attack against the enemy in Kitchener’s Wood close to St. Julien. On the morning of April 23rd the Canadians attempted counter attacks but there was not much gained and casualties were heavy.

April 22-30:  Lance Cpl. William PALMER

April 23rd:  Pvt. Loftus Roy HERN;   Pvt. David Charles WEIN

Then, on April 24th the enemy launched an attack and the enemy used poison gas again and this time the gas rolled over the Canadians. They had to deal with enemy artillery and machine gun fire, jammed Ross rifles, heavy fighting and they were gasping to breathe they were able to hold until help arrived.

April 24th:  Pvt. Melvin BUNSTON; Lance Sgt. John Wesley REID

April 27th:  Pvt. Harry Milton PHILCOX

April 28th:  Pvt. Edward James MURCH

April 30th:  Pvt. Henry Edwin ROSE

The Canadians proved their determination and toughness during these three days 2,000 Canadians died and 4,035 were wounded. This was their initiation.

FESTUBERT May 15 – 27, 1915 GIVENCHY June 15 – 16, 1915

The Canadians had suffered tremendously at Ypres and volunteers of the Canadian Cavalry Brigade helped bring their numbers up before moving south to the Allied offensives. The British had made attacks in French Flanders and were partially successful at Neuve Chapelle but very much bloodied and bruised at Aubers Ridge. The French had made an attack on Artois that was not very successful.

The Canadians joined the line at Festubert in May of 1915 and at Givenchy in June. The Canadians were able to achieve some of their objectives during both battles. However, the British Command and their strategy of frontal assaults against the enemy caused the casualty rate to be extreme. At Festubert in May the Canadians suffered 2,468 casualties and at Givenchy in June the Casualties were 400.

June 15th Private Arnold Clement BRENNER


Canada’s First Contingent had set sail from Canada in October of 1914 and once in England and finished their training would become the 1st Canadian Infantry Division. The 2nd Canadian Division was formed from the men that sailed from Canada with the First Canadian Contingent. The Division was formed in May 1915 and they went overseas into France in September 1915.

Both Canadian Division had to deal with the upcoming winter that had them at the front between Ploegsteert Wood and St. Eloi in Belgium. Here they had to contend with trenches full of water, “trenchfoot”, pneumonia, colds, influenza, rats, lice and fleas.

Then, in December, the 3rd Canadian Division was formed in France.

July 15th Cpl. Chester Stuart MacDONALD; Pvt. Herbert Harrison MEEK

December 11th Cpl. John Foreman USHER

December 29th Sgt. William DARNELL




The fighting that would take place on the battlefields of the Somme was cursed from the beginning and before the Canadians became attached to that slaughter, they were part of local offensives in the southern portion of the Ypres Salient.

January 9th Pvt Arthur Ansell HART

January 11th Pvt. Thomas EDGAR

January 18th Major Charles Edward SALE

March 2nd Pvt. Harrison Cleveland McDONALD


March 27 – April 16, 1916

Here the 2nd Canadian Division was initiated on a battlefield that was full of water-filled mine craters and shell holes. The Canadians were wearing the new steel helmets for the first time. The battle was for six water logged mine craters that took place over a two week period. The fighting was confused, there was no cover, there were assaults and counter attacks. The Canadian casualties of men killed, men wounded, men missing and men becoming casualties numbered 1,373.

April 6th Pvt. Alfred Ernest STEELS

April 9th Pvt. Bernard Arthur WATMORE

April 10th Pvt. William SEWARD

April 28th Pvt. William MANNING

May 22nd Pvt. Homer Arthur CANTELON


June 2 – 13, 1916

Here, at Mount Sorrel, the Allies were holding this position. On June 2nd, the Germans attacked and the artillery bombardment that came down on the Canadians and trenches were eliminated and the defenders were ravaged. Men and trees were catapulted into the air. The 3rd Canadian Division fought as best they could but could not stop the hordes of enemy from engulfing them. In the evening the enemy advance was stopped but Mount Sorrel along with Hills 61 and 62 were occupied by the enemy. On the morning of June 3rd, the Canadians counter-attacked without success. Three days later on June 6th the enemy exploded four mines along the Canadian front and attacked and captured Hooge on the Menin Road. This was the first action experienced by the 3rd Canadian Division.

June 2nd Lance Cpl. Alexander Duncan MacDiarmid

June 4th Pvt. Joseph Albert GORDON; Lance Cpl. James Scott HAYS

June 13th Pvt. James Spencer HEMSWORTH

The Canadians however were intent on taking back what had been lost. Planning was careful, and the Canadian artillery would support the 1st Canadian Division. There was a savage artillery barrage on the German forces and at 1:30 am on the morning of June 13th the attack went forward in the wind and rain. The 1st Division was rewarded as the planning had been successful and the high ground that had been lost on June 2nd was once again in the hands of the Canadians. The casualty count was high – 8,430 casualties.



It seems that at this point in the war that the British Command knew nothing or cared little about planning well for an offensive or strategizing in an attempt to limit the lives that would be lost in the attacks. Every advance was a slaughter with very few achievements or successes.

In February of 1916, knowing how important Verdun was to the French, the Germans planned an offensive for this walled city. The enemy believed the French would fight and die for this city and the plan was to coax the French into a salient that was narrow and dangerous and then through his artillery destroy the French forces. This artillery barrage began on February 21st and for the next ten months artillery shells were thrown at one another as well as soldiers. During Christmas of 1916 the battle ended and the casualty count for both the French and Germans was 680,000 men with 250,000 men dying.

June 5th Pvt. Rupert Elwyn RIVERS

June 6th Sgt. Richard CUNNINGHAM; Pvt. William Ferguson DAVIDSON;

Pvt. Robert Bruce LOGAN

June 13th Pvt. Thomas Wilfred MONTGOMERY; Pvt. Percy George SYDER


July 1 – November 18, 1916

The situation in France and Belgium at this time was that it was a standoff on the battlefield. The front extended 620 miles and the fighting was taking place in the trenches across this front. In between the trenches of the Allies and the Germans was a treeless mass of ground void of any cover known as “no man’s land”.

Positions were strongly protected by trench mortars, artillery, machine guns and snipers. No side was able to make a breakthrough. However, the Allies were planning a push that they hoped would fracture the enemy lines. This was going to occur in northern France in the Somme River valley.

It began, and it was a disaster with 57,000 British and Commonwealth forces being killed, wounded, missing or becoming prisoners. There was never a major success nor a breakthrough and the bitter, bloody and cruel fighting continued and this was because of very inadequate leadership from the British Command.

During the 1916 summer, The Canadian Corps had been positioned in Belgium and in late August they began to shift their positions to near the French town of Courcelette. Here they began to encounter fierce enemy opposition and suffered 2,600 casualties. This was even before the advance they had been tasked with ever began.

July 27th Sapper William REDFERN

July 31st Pvt. Samuel DARNELL

August 24th Pvt. James Johnston HUTCHINSON

September 3rd Pvt. Joseph HOLLAND

September 4th Pvt. Patrick CRAMPSEY; Pvt. William John WHITE

September 6th Pvt. Horace Morgan Cayley HAMILTON

September 7th Pvt. Arthur LAVIS

September 8th Pvt. Arthur William McMATH; Pvt. Charles Edward McMILLAN

September 9th Pvt. Harvey I. CURRIE

September 12th Lt. John Ure GARROW

In the middle of September, the Canadians advanced on a 6,500 yard front and they followed the creeping barrage which was a new tactic. This bombardment forced the enemy under cover and prevented them from firing on the advancing Canadians. For this to be successful, the advancing infantry had to closely follow the barrage.

Also being used was the tank for the first time and the sound and sign of this weapon threw the enemy into confusion. By 8am the enemy defences were broken, and the Canadians were at their defensive position known as the Sugar Factory. Later in the day the Canadians capture the town of Courcelette. The enemy, as per his routine launched numerous counter-attacks which were thrown back. The Germans, in these situations brought up their reinforcements and any further advances would be very difficult.

September 15th Pvt. Edward Percy ADLEY; Pvt. Robert William McINTOSH;

Pvt. James Monilaws RICHARDSON; Pvt. Wilbert Stanley SUTTON;

Pvt. Richard D. WALTON

For the remainder of September and into October the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Canadian Divisions advanced against the enemy with their final objective which had eluded being taken was the position called Regina Trench.

September 20th Lt. Conrad George CAREY

September 21st Pvt. Boyd McGregor NICHOL

September 24th Pvt. Thomas GARTON; Pvt. James Charles GOVIER;

Pvt. Charles Hugh ROBINSON

September 25th Pvt. James Alexander HAMILTON

September 26 Pvt. Robert Lee BARRETT; Pvt Warren LIVINGOOD;

Pvt. William John PASSMORE; Pvt. John Henry SHAW;

Pvt. Harvey SKELDING

September 26/27th Lance Sergeant William PADFIELD

September 27th Lt. Maitland Percival LANE

September 30th Pvt. Thomas Edward GOVENLOCK; Pvt. Murdoch M. MacLEOD;

October 1st Pvt. John Gordon HOGARTH

October 2nd Pvt. George Newman CLUFF; Pvt. George Frederick SPRIGGS;

Pvt. Llewelyn John TAGGART

October 7th Pvt. Andrew HABICK; Cpl. Thomas LOCHEED

October 8th Pvt. Arthur William PORTER; Pvt. Arnold RATHWELL;

Pvt. Fred SKELTON; Pvt. William Alfred SLADE

October 10th Pvt. Frederick George SLATER

In the middle of October, the 4th Canadian Division arrived relieved the other divisions on the front. The Canadians now had to deal with a battlefield that was mud and a stubborn and never yielding enemy that always was taking a toll on the Canadians. It did not matter for the Canadians took Regina Trench on November 11, 1916. One week later, during the final advance of the Battle of the Somme, the Canadians captured Desire Trench. Winter was upon them and there were no further advances. The “big push” had resulted in an advance of 6 miles.

October 21st Pvt. Patrick Joseph KELLY

October 25th Pvt. Herbert Trewartha CHAPMAN; Lt. James Ambrose HORAN

November 11th Pvt. Wendell RUSSELL

November 18th Pvt. Leonard Roy BROCK

November 27th Pvt. William Percy MOORE

During the Battle of the Somme the Allied casualties were 200,000 men killed and 450,000 wounded or missing. More than 24,000 Canadian soldiers were either killed, wounded or missing.

This battle brought the Canadian divisions to be known as first rate front line troops and who could advance and capture enemy positions under heavy enemy fire. During the Battle of the Somme, the Canadians had suffered but they had also learned from the ways the Allies conducted their advances. What they learned and how they learned from their mistakes would be seen in the years ahead.

The Canadians now moved to new positions in the vicinity of Vimy Ridge.

December 7th Pvt. Charles Kirkton RENNIE

December 19th Pvt. William Henry WALKER

December 25th Pvt. Russell Samuel ERWIN



January 5th Pvt. William Isaac CARTER

January 21st Pvt. Arthur Henry GRANT

February 7th Pvt. Robert McGermain YUILL

February 15th Pvt. Cleveland AITCHISON

February 28th Sgt. John James CAMPBELL

March 1st Pvt. Robert Murray McLEOD

March 13th Sgt. William Edward HELPS

March 21st Lt. George Buchanan MULHOLLAND; Pvt. Frederick David WEIR

March 25th Pvt. David WESTON

March 26th Pvt. William Alexander McKay

March 28th Pvt. Norman Martin PRANG; Sapper Charles Edward ROLPH



April 9 – 12, 1917

During the winter of 1916-1917 the fighting had been going on for 2 ½ years and no side had been able to make that strategic breakthrough. In the spring of 1917, an Allied advance was being planned very close to Arras. The Canadians were being tasked with the capture of Vimy Ridge.

Vimy Ridge is a long and high hill that overpowers the surrounding terrain. The German military had occupied this position since very early in the war and during this period they had converted the ridge into a very heavy defended position. The Ridge had been assaulted in 1914 and 1915 and the French and British losses were in the hundreds of thousands.


Late in 1916, the Canadians moved to the front across from Vimy Ridge where the planning and strategizing for the upcoming offensive began in earnest. During the winter months improving their positions, strengthening the lines, trained extensively with models of the trench systems being built with the infantry being drilled over and over as to what their duties would be and their objectives would be.

Underneath the enemy positions, there was very extensive mining taking place with caches of explosives being place and would be detonated when the advance began. There were tunnels with lighting and underground bunkers were filled with arms and supplies.

Very early in April 1917, the Canadian artillery began their artillery bombardments onto the enemy positions in an attempt to wear them down and over this period a million shells came down upon the enemy.

April 2nd Pvt. Thomas Joseph MASON

April 4 Pvt. Andrew William ARCHIBALD

April 5th Pvt. Edmund Bruce NOBLE

April 6th Pvt. William GRANT

April 8th Pvt. Walter George NOBLE

April 8-10th Lance Cpl. Herbert Stanley McDONALD



All four Division of the Canadian Corps began to move at 5:30 am on the morning of April 9, 1917. Heavily laden men of the first wave numbering 15,000-20,000 attacked with the sleet and wind at their backs into the enemy machine gun fire.

The advance was following a “creeping” barrage and the infantry followed this very close and as a result were able to capture enemy positions and this was before the enemy could come out of their bunkers.

The first wave took heavy casualties but still they were on schedule. Most of the heavily defended Ridge was captured by noon with Hill 145, the highest point was taken the following morning on April 10th. Then, on April 12th, the “pimple” was captured. The Allied forces now had control of the heights overlooking the Douai Plain and this was still held by the enemy.

The Canadian Corps with the British in the south, had captured more ground, artillery pieces and prisoners than any other British offensive.

The successes here were costly. Over 100,000 Canadians served here with 3,600 being killed and 7,000 being wounded.

April 9th Pvt Henry Watson BEST; Pvt. Denton Boyne FERGUSON;

Lt. James MacPherson MacArthur; Pvt. Alexander Douglas MacDonald CALDER;

Lt. Lionel Hyman ELIOT; Pvt. Charles Harold JOHNSON; Sgt. Percy Roy LAWSON;

Pvt George MONK; Pvt. Marshall Thomas MOSGROVE; Pvt. Joseph SULLIVAN;

Sgt. Reginald David TURNBULL; Pvt. Harry Ernest WINDSOR

April 10th Pvt. George CRANSTON; Pvt. Franklin Mitchell ELLWOOD;

Sgt. John Ross McKINNON; Lt. Alexander Goodwin NISBET;

Lt. William Maunsell SCANLAN

April 11th Pvt. Joseph Wallace AITCHISON

April 12th Pvt. James Hartwell CHAPMAN; Pvt. George Henry McBride;

Pvt. Earl Hoffman RAYMOND;

April 13th Pvt. George Reginald Johnson; Pvt. Ogal McLEOD

April 15th Pvt. Frederick Montague ROBERTSON; 2nd Lt. Thomas William PENHALE

April 18th Pvt. Francis Melvin RENWICK

April 21st Gunner Oliver Lawrence PENDER

May 3rd Pvt. David Allan CANTELON; Pvt. George R. Ernest JACKSON;


May 4th Pvt. Osmond LaVerne MURRAY

May 6th Pvt. Norman James SHARPIN

May 10th Pvt. William Edgar BLACK

May 13th Pvt. Philip Thomas CLARK

May 22nd Pvt. Walter Case TROYER

June 4th Gunner Frederick Wilmer ERRINGTON

June 6th Pvt. Ross Frederick FORSYTH

June 8th Pvt. William Percy BUCHANAN

June 15th Pvt. Arthur Edward Clarke; Pvt. Theodore St Clair MACDONALD

June 19/20 Pvt. Henry Manson TAYLOR

June 25th Pvt. William Georg DE LONG

June 26th Pvt. Arthur Cecil NEELY; Pvt. Earl Albert GARDINER; Pvt. George HAYLES;

June 28th Pvt. Thomas Malcolm KEYS; Pvt. Henry Roscoe MAHONEY;

Pvt. George Edward MAINES

July 1st Pvt. George Henry THAMER



August 15 – 25, 1917

During the summer of 1917, things were not going well for the Allies, with Russia on the eastern front faltering with a revolution taking place. The enemy U-boat campaign at this stage was sucking the life out of the necessary supplies needed. In addition, the Passchendaele offensive was grinding to a halt in the mud of Belgium. The Canadian Corps was needed and once again called into action.

With the Canadian victory at Vimy, General Arthur Currie was made Commander of the Canadian Corps. This action was the first under his command and the Canadian Corps was to attack the Germans at Hill 70 with the goal of drawing enemy forces away from Passchendaele. Why? Because the British were failing miserably at Passchendaele.

The enemy was well entrenched in Lens, and Currie felt casualties would be extreme if they advanced on Lens. He then proposed that the Canadian Corps would take the slopes of Hill 70 in a surprise advance, set up defences and await the enemy counter attacks.

July 17th Pvt. John Henry BATES

July 24th Pvt. George AGAR



The Canadian Corps planned and strategized and they trained and all the while the artillery was coming down on the enemy positions. Raids were conducted to the south misleading the enemy into thinking the attack would be there. On August 15, 1917 the Canadians made their move and in short order had most of their objectives. The enemy was dumbfounded and the counter attacks came – 21 in total. There was artillery coming down on the enemy during the counter attacks as well as 250 Canadian machine guns.

The fighting was bloody, bitter and brutal and poison gas was used and the Canadians wearing gas masks had their goggles fog up making visibility of the enemy difficult. There was hand to hand fighting with those of the enemy that managed to reach the Canadians.

The Canadians had Hill 70 but the enemy still had Lens which was now being swept by the Canadian firepower from the heights of Hill 70.

Then on August 21-23 the Canadians went on the offensive against Lens and now the Canadians took heavy casualties from the enemy firepower. The Canadians took the western part of Lens but their attacks dwindled and the battle ended on August 25th.

The Canadian Corps took 9,200 casualties between August 15-25 out of 100,000 men. The enemy had taken 25,000 casualties.

Following this battle, and seeing what the Canadians could do, Douglas Haig began to realize there were better ways to fight a war other than sending thousands of men to their deaths over and over again.

July 19th Pvt. Robert John FALLIS

July 23rd Pvt. John Caldwell STRANG

July 27th Capt./Quartermaster Ronald John MacDONALD



July 31 – November 10, 1917

The Canadian Corps in the fall of 1917 were sent north into Belgium near the Ypres area. Passchendaele was located in this area and it had been the location of previous battles. It was near here where the first enemy gas attack took place.

Fighting here was going to be a challenge as the terrain in the area was flat and low ground that could only be kept dry with a system of ditches and dikes. There had been back and forth battles for three years and there was virtually no drainage ditches and dikes left. When all of this was wet it was a gooey and sucking mud and at times impossible to get through.

The British Commander was attempting to take the pressure off the French to the south and in the Ypres area he began an advance to try and wear down the Germans. He also wanted to capture enemy railway positions and capture the enemy ports where the U-boats were.


At the end of July 1917, the British, Australians and New Zealand Forces began their advance in heavy rains. Shell holes filled with water and quite often there were wounded and dying in the shell holes. They suffered high casualties as they had to deal with the mud and water over open ground and all the while the enemy machine guns were cutting them down. Even so they slowly gained the upper ground but the main objective could not be achieved.

August 9th Pvt. Mark ARNOLD

August 15th Sgt. William Charles COOK; Pvt. John Thomas EARLS; Lt. Arthur Smith MacLean;

Pvt. Robert Leslie THOMPSON

August 16th Lance Cpl. Robert Sidney TOWLE

August 18th Pvt. Alexander McLEOD

August 20th Pvt. Samuel Henry BROWN

August 21st Pvt. Reginald Samuel BRIMICOMBE; Pvt. George HANDY;

Pvt. Alfred Pullen; Pvt. Guy Blanchard SEWELL

August 23rd Pvt. Thomas Leslie McKINNEY; 2nd Franklin James FOSTER;

Pvt. William Ferguson NELSON; Pvt. Edward John WYGOLD

August 25th Pvt. James WARD

August 27th Pvt. Charley Austin CAMPBELL; Pvt. Robert Franklin GORDON;

Sgt. Richard Colvin HOWSON

August 31st Pvt. Bruce Herbert MATTHEWS

September 3rd Pvt. William John MARSHALL

September 4th Pvt. Alan Duncan MacLEAN

September 12th Pvt. Lawrence Earl JOHNS

September 28th Pvt. Harvey Franklin WILLIS



Very early in October the Australians and New Zealanders were relieved by the Canadian Corps and they would take Passchendaele. General Currie after seeing the situation at Passchendaele and tried to avoid having the Canadians fight there but Haig overruled him. Haig still had not learned anything after years of failed offenses. The battlefield that lay before the Canadians with the mud, water, shell holes and open ground was unlike anything they had to deal with. Haig wanted the advance to go quickly and the lack of preparation time and the artillery fire would be a vastly different battlefield.

October 5th Pvt. John Herbert LAWSON

Pvtpber 8th Pvt. William Melbourne WRIGHT

October 23rd Pvt. Crawford NEWTON

October 24th Pvt. Elmer McFALLS

October 25th Lt. Charles Kenneth MacPHERSON; Lt. Harold Martin GROVES;

Lance Cpl. Joseph LAY (LEIGH)

October 26th Sgt. George John DAVIS; Pvt. William Thomas FORBES; Pvt. Stanley ROBB;

Pvt. William WALLAY


General Currie refused to advance until his Canadian Corps was as ready as they could be. He estimated the losses would be 16,000 men.

The Canadian Corps began their advance on October 26th through the mud, water and heavy enemy fire. Progress was slow, and the casualties were high but they fought and advanced over every foot of the battlefield. Four days later on October 30th during the second advance and in a very heavy rainstorm the Canadians were at the outskirts of Passchendaele.

October 26th Pvt. Lorne William ALLIN; Pvt. John Henry BARKER;

Pvt. Charles Edward BROMBLEY; Pvt. John Edward CARTER;

Sgt. George John DAVIS; Pvt. William Thomas FORBES;

Lance Cpl. Charles Barclay FORREST; Pvt. Joseph GLAZIER;

Pvt. Norman Wellington JOHNS; Pvt. Ernest Albert KEMP; Pvt. James JAMIESON;

Pvt. Charles Edwin KNIGHT; Pvt. Robert John LAWSON; Pvt. Albert MAYHEW;

Pvt. Joseph Arthur McCLUSKEY; Pvt. Clifford William RUFFELL;

Pvt. Sydney WEST; Pvt. Charles Ivan WIGHTMAN;

October 27th Lance Cpl. Thomas Harold Inman WILKINSON

October 28th Cpl. Alexander CHISHOLM; Pvt. George Edward KELLETT;

Pvt. Henry Rodger Truman O’BRIAN

October 29th Pvt. Joseph A. YUILL

October 30th Pvt. Alexander Charles FRENCH; Pvt. Andrew Stewart WILSON

November 2nd Pvt. George CARTER


A week later on November 6th the Canadian Corps and British assaulted Passchendaele and their objective was achieved with the 27th Winnipeg Battalion taking the town. They endured heavy enemy counter attacks but held firm. On November 10, 1917 the Canadians once again attacked and cleared the enemy from the eastern edges of the Passchendaele Ridge. Once again, the Canadian Corps had led the way and were successful in achieving their objectives.

The predictions of General Currie as to the losses the Canadians would suffer was very accurate. Over the fighting from October 26-November 10th 4,000 Canadians died and 11,600 were wounded. Currie had predicted 16,000 casualties.

Another impressive achievement for the Canadian Corps and the most efficient fighting force on the Western Front. From this point forward, the Canadian Corps would be leading the Allied advances against the enemy. Already Canada had earned their place as a separate signing at the Treaty of Versailles that officially ended World War I.

November 6th Pvt. William Frederick DODDS; Pvt. Frederick GANNEY;

Pvt. Edwin Lincoln GARDINER; Pvt. Alexander Bruce HENRY;

Lance Cpl. Colin Gordon MacNAUGHTON;

Pvt. Thomas Edgar Laidlaw STRACHAN; Pvt. John Wesley WANKEL;

November 9th Pvt. Frank Dudley FORRESTER

November 10th Pvt. Manson John REEVES; Sgt. George WELSH

November 11th Pvt. Wesley McCLINCHEY; Pvt. John Reginald LOVE;

November 12th Pvt. James Oswald BROWN

November 13th Pvt. Thomas Todd MacDONALD; Pvt. Earl WATT

November 14th Pvt. Ian Cameron MALLOUGH

November 15th Sgt. Walter TREMAIN

November 18th Pvt. Cecil James BURGESS

November 19th Pvt. William Laurier BELL

November 20th Pvt. Edgar Cecil ARDELL

November 21st Pvt. Issac QUINN

November 22nd Sgt. Neill Gordon McDOUGALL

December 1st Cpl. William Arthur MAYBURY

December 13th Sapper Alvin Burns HASTINGS




March 21 – July 18, 1918

At the start of 1918 the situation for the Allies was not good and in March the enemy made major advances and pushed the Allies to within 40 miles of Paris. Their hope was to break the Allied front lines and end the war with a victory or at least a draw. Yet, the German Army could go no further as they had overextended their forces and supply lines. Their manpower reserve was low as was their supplies. The Allied armies stopped the Germans and reorganized themselves before they made a push with the objective of ending the war.

January 15th Pvt. Michael Joseph HIGGINS

January 21st Pvt. James Russell MARTIN

January 29th Bombardier William Wilbur JOHNSON

February 1st Sgt Major Arthur Thomas DOVEY; Sergeant Major Arthur Thomas DOVEY

February 27th Pvt. William CHAPMAN

March 3rd 2nd Class Air Mechanic William Stanley HAYS

The best the German Army had was thrown against the British between Arras and St. Quentin as this was the weakest point on the Allied front. The date was March 21, 1918 and in the fighting the Canadian Cavalry Brigade was very prominent showing the value of a horse in a battle of manoeuvering.

March 22nd Sgt. Frank FAIR

March 23rd Lance Cpl. Elmar Austeis (Austin) ROWE

March 24th Lance Cpl. Samuel S. BURROWS

April 5th 2nd Lt. William Hingston HALL

March 6th Pvt. Thomas henry MORROW

April 6th Pvt. Russel Scobie McALLISTER

April 12th Pvt. Herbert Henry VOLLICK

April 22nd Pvt. David Eldon HASTINGS

April 23rd Pvt. Ernest Patrick O’BRIAN

April 28th Pvt. Orville Andrew BUCHANAN; Pvt. Frank Stewart GERRY

March 29th Gunner William Henderson FORREST

March 31st Bombardier Albert CORNELL

May 20th Pvt. Frederick CUMING

May 30th Pvt. George WICKS

June 2nd 2nd Lt. Clarence Scott GARDEN

June 25th Angus Duncan KERR

June 26th Robert John LAIRD

June 27th Pvt. Victor George SANDERS


In four months, the enemy struck in the areas of Ypres, Soissons and Reims and the enemy was able to gain considerable territory. The German were now at the Marne and within 40 miles of Paris. The Allies were exhausted, they faltered, and they retreated but they held the front. The Canadians were not part of the defensive fighting, but they took over much greater lengths of line to allow the relieved divisions to take part in actions elsewhere.

On July 4th, the enemy was totally defeated at Le Hamel. Then, on July 18th, the Allies began a counter attack at the Marne and by early August had regained much of the territory the British had lost. This drained the enemy of their morale and all along the front there were quick and sharp attacks on the enemy positions. The Allied forces were advancing in all sectors. The British were pounding the Hindenburg Line, and other Allied forcing were advancing as well.

July 23rd Private Harry R. CRACKNELL

July 26th Pvt. William Roy CASEMORE

August 8th Pvt. John Cleveland DENBOW; Lance Cpl. William GOLL; Pvt. Edwin Byard HILL;

Pvt. Robert Henry PASSMORE; Pvt. Hugh William TOMS;

Pvt. Percy William VANNER

August 9th Pvt. James Edmund McLEOD; Pvt. James Ledran PENROSE;

Pvt. George Louis STEVENS

August 10th Lt. Walter Hartley BURGESS; Pvt. Robert CORRIGAN; Pvt. Frank JOHNSON;

Pvt. James Vincent KIRK; Pvt. James Clarence LOCKWOOD;

Pvt. Stanley Herbert MOORE; Pvt. Alfred OSMAN;

Gunner Lewis Edwin ROBINSON; Lt. Walter Frank SCOTT;

Pvt. Frank Harold WILLIAMS; Lance Cpl. Joseph Robert TREMAIN;

Lt. William Bell WILSON; Pvt. Harold Melville YOUNG

August 11th Pvt. William Gordon WALKER



August 18 – November 11, 1918

For the previous 3 ½ years the fighting on the Western Front was nothing more than a stalemate with artillery, machine guns and snipers on both sides making it difficult to break the defences on the other side. The old tactics of the British of massing and sending men “over the top” time and time again with no success was changed by the General Currie of the Canadian Corps. He planned, strategized and made all commanders aware of their duties and objectives in the hopes of lessening the casualties and achieving their objectives. It would be the Canadian Corps that would finally make the breakthrough on the Western Front.

The Canadian Corps would be leading this push forward with the objective being to end the fighting.

The enemy by now new all about the Canadian Corps and what they could achieve and once they knew the Canadians were across from them and they quickly realized they were in for a very difficult time. The Canadians at this point knew they would have to move in great secrecy along the front. In August a major offensive was going to take place and some of the Canadian Corps were moved to Ypres in Belgium. The German forces there then thought an attack was coming there and then quickly the Canadians returned to France and the Amiens sector.


Thursday August 8,1918 was when the Canadian Corps began the final push onto the enemy positions without a previous artillery barrage. The use of artillery would have allowed the enemy to prepare for the upcoming attack. The German military was shocked and taken by surprise and the Canadian Corps moved ahead 12 miles in three days. It deflated the morale of the enemy and the German High Command stated, “it was the black day for the German Army.”


August 8th Sgt. Frederick John KELLAND; Cpl. Harry Garnet Bedford MINER;

Pvt. John Alexander RASMUSSEN; Pvt. John William RILEY;

August 9th Sgt. Norman Arthur McGUIRE

August 10th Pvt. Magill Harvey MILLEN; Pvt. James Earl ROADHOUSE

August 11th Pvt. Robert James BLACKER; Gunner William DRYSDALE

August 14th Cpl. John KENNEDY

August 15th Pvt. Allan Daniel MacDONALD; Pvt. Harvey Pearson McCLUSKEY

August 17th Pvt. William Edward MORGAN

August 20th Pvt. George Ross TAYLOR

August 21st Pvt. Clarence Austin NEDIGER

August 22nd 2nd Lt. Cecil Gerard Verity PICKARD

August 23rd Pvt. Edward Cecil DILLING

August 24th Pvt. Robert Ingersol WEST

The Allies continued pressing the enemy forces and now the Canadian Corps was moved to the Arras sector and now would help in breaking the main German line of Defence known as the Hindenburg Line. The fighting for this position began on August 26th against the best the enemy had and in one week the Canadians broke the Drocourt-Queant Line positioned in front of the Hindenburg Line.

August 26th Pvt. Thomas Davidson SAVAGE; Pvt. John Thomas SULLIVAN

August 27th Lance Cpl. Alexander John Goggins GRAHAM; Pvt. Frank Clifford GREALIS;

Pvt. Augustus John HARTUNG

August 28th Lt. Francis Nicholas CLUFF; Sgt. Robert Murray DRAPER;

Pvt. A. Bertram FURNISS; Pvt. Fran Stuart GERRY

Pvt. Oxley Harold HANNETT Jr.; Pvt. William Alan HOOD; Lt. James Knox MAIR;

August 29th Pvt. William Thomas CARLING; Pvt. James SPEARPOINT

August 30th Pvt. Kenneth CURRIE; Pvt. William John HALL

August 31st Pvt. Lyle Gardener McCRACKEN

September 1st Pvt. Hector Wilson BRETHOUR; Pvt. John Dougall MacLAREN;

Pvt. Clarence Frederick JACKSON;

September 2nd Pvt. Isaac AHKEWENZIE; Pvt. Archibald Theo BARRON;

Pvt. Douglas Howard BATES; Pvt. Alexander Collin CAMPBELL;

Pvt. Herbert Francis CLARKE; Pvt. Richard FAY; Pvt. Abraham Leslie FISHER;

Pvt. Wesley Arthur GAISER Pvt. John Harvey HUFFMAN;

Pvt. Austin Joseph McDOUGALL; Pvt. Angus Stuart McKINNON;

Maj. William Broder McTAGGART; Pvt. Theodore Ernest SUNBURY;

Pvt. William Alexander UNDERWOOD

September 3rd Pvt. Wilson CULBERT; Pvt. John William DENMAN; Pvt. Roy Frederick HUNT;

Pvt. John Benjamin LAWRENCE; Pvt. George Hanson PETTY

September 4th Pvt. Ralph Mills SMITH

September 5th Pvt. Joseph DOYLE; Sgt. James Frank MacNAUGHTON;

September 6th Pvt. Samuel HAYS; Pvt. George Richardson EASSON

September 7th Pvt. Nelson DAVIDSON; Pvt. Paul Evan GILLESPIE

September 8th Pvt. John Archibald McCULLOUGH

September 12th Pvt. Bernard BROWN

September 14th Pvt. William Wallace WHITE

September 16th Pvt. Elton Syrus GREEN

September 20th Pvt. George Melvin CLARK

September 23rd Cpl. William HART; Lt. Cecil John FRENCH

September 25th Pvt. Robert Edward HIBBEN

September 26th Sgt. Birtin James MacLEAN


On September 27th, the attack against the Canal du Nord commenced with the Canadian Corp crossing the dry Canal du Nord on a 2,700 yard wide front. Prior to this move forward the Canadian artillery brought down the heaviest artillery barrage onto the enemy of the whole war. The advance for the Canadians was another major success and were able to break through the enemy lines of defence and then made another push and captured Bourlon Wood. The Hindenburg Line was broken and it had been breached in a number of places.

September 27th Pvt. James Daniel BAKER; Pvt. Albert Russel BATES;

Pvt. Duncan Cameron CAMPBELL; Cpl. Harold CAMPBELL;

Pvt. John Wesley HUDSON; Pvt. Charles Cecil LITTLECHILD;

Pvt. William Middleton McNAUGHTON; Pvt. William Ernest NEILL;

Cpl. John Joseph PURCELL; Pvt. George REICHARD;

Pvt. John Charmichael RINGLER; Pvt. Frederick STEELS;

Pvt. Frederick William STOKES; Pvt. Arthur Leopold TIERNAY;

Pvt. George Andrew WEILAND; Pvt. Aylmer Thomas WILLIS;

September 28th Pvt. Robert REDFERN; Pvt. Ernest PENRICE; Pvt. Laurence Allan WARK

September 29th Pvt. John BINKLEY; Pvt. Frederick James BRITTAIN;

Pvt. John Roy CATTANACH; Pvt. Rollo Elmer COOK;

Pvt. Joseph Vanstone GOOD; Sgt. William Edgar LAMPORT;

Pvt. Daniel O’TOOLE; Pvt. James Maltman RICHARDSON;

Capt. Andrew ROSS; Pvt. Sidney Joseph SMITH;

Lt. John Herbert Adams STONEMAN; Lt. Royland Allin WALTER;

Pvt. Clarence Charles Victor WESTCOTT

September 30th Pvt. David John McCLINCHEY; Pvt. Thomas LITTLE; Lt. Jack Bertram SWARTS

October 1st Pvt. John William BEERE; Pvt. Russel Francis WOODS;

Pvt. Bertie George ENGLISH

October 2nd Pvt. James Earle DURNIN

October 3rd Sapper Samuel Arthur COOK

October 5th Lt. James McCALLUM

October 6th Pvt. Robert CHETTLEBURGH; Cpl. Arthur Daniel McGILLICUDDY

October 7th Pvt. George Laing Reid CAMPBELL

October 9th Pvt. Burton Bell ELLIOTT; Pvt. Elmer McGUIRE; Pvt. Ian Robertson WARES

October 10th Pvt. James Maurice FINLEON

The German Army was retreating but still strongly resisting and the city of Cambrai was taken following further hard fighting. Then, by October 11th, the Canal de la Sensee had been reached and the whole of the Canadian Corps took this enemy position. It was the final time the whole of the Canadian Corps would be together. Part of the Corps still pushed ahead and took Mont Huoy along with Valenciennes by early November.

October 11th Pvt. William George FLOOK

October 12th Pvt. Lawrence Elwin DOBSON

October 15th Pvt. Frank WEILAND

October 17th Lt. Alfred Roy ADAMS

October 18th Pvt. James Howard COULTES; Cpl. Norman Edward NICHOLLS

October 19th Pvt. William Albert JEWITT

October 21st Cpl. Reginald George ANGELL

October 23rd Gunner Thomas Alexander PARK

October 24th Pvt. John Eldon BULLARD

October 28th Cpt. Thomas Reginald GUILFOYLE

October 29th Pvt. Percy Arnold DIEHL

October 31st Pvt. Thomas Alexander BRIMACOMBE

From August 8th until November 11th, 100,000 men of the Canadian Corps had advanced 80 miles, took 32,000+ enemy prisoners and captured 3,800 enemy artillery pieces.

November 1st Sgt. Thomas Harold Carling BISSETT; Pvt. Jonathon Martin Lorne MUGFORD;

Pvt. Herbert Henry PALMER; Pvt. John Joseph ROWLAND

November 2nd Cpl. Wilfred Edmund HICKS; Pvt. John Carlyle MATTHEWS

November 3rd Pvt. Glenn Eden FLINTOFF

November 6th Pvt. Herbert James BOND

During the last 100 days the casualty count was 45,835 which was 12 ½% of the casualties the British suffered. Those figures tell you a great deal of the efficiency of the leadership of the Canadian Corps and the ability of the Canadian soldier in doing his duties.

November 17th Pvt. John Edward TERRY

November 20th Cpl. Charles Robert Naton Plumer HORSLEY

December 20th Pvt. John Daniel LAING; Pvt. George Frederick Wilson McCUTCHEON



In 1914, the aeroplane was considered nothing more than a curiosity but by 1918 it had become a useful and indispensable weapon of war. Originally, it was used for reconnaissance, to observe enemy troops movements and artillery spotting. Following this came the bombers and fighters who bombed railways and industry, destroyed bases where the Zepelins were and hunted submarines at sea.

Our airmen flew these shaky and unsteady machines with just a few instruments and no parachutes and the fighter pilot became the elite with a very dangerous job. Flying became a occupation of killing. One third of all flyers died in combat and this included 1,600 Canadians.

More than 25,000 Canadians were part of the Royal Flying Corps and Royal Air Force serving as pilots, observers and mechanics and they earned 800 decorations.

April 25, 1918 Cadet Victor Raymond EVANS

August 16, 1918 2nd Lt. Chesley McLEAN

January 24, 1919 Cpl. John Thomas MITCHELL



Over the course of World War I the main struggle of the Royal Navy was to choke Germany by means of a naval blockade while the German Navy attempted to destroy the supply lines to Great Britain.

The German fleet for the most part did not leave their ports and the Royal Navy eliminated the enemy merchant ship raiders. The major naval battle was at Jutland and here the Royal Navy was heavily damaged and the German fleet never again left port.

The German Navy’s only threat was the U-boat fleet which hunted the Allied merchant fleet and neutral ships and sank them on sight.

Germany was feeling the effects of the Royal Navy blockade by the end of 1916 and the Germans also felt they could bring Britain down within five months. They were willing to risk bringing the United States into the war. Unrestricted warfare continued against all ships.

The losses for the Allies on the seas continued to climb and in April of 1917 the enemy navy had sunk 869,000 tons but the German Navy was not rewarded with a speedy victory. The Allies were developing new anti-submarine devices and with the forming of the convoy system they slowly were able to overcome the U-boat threat.

Then by the summer of 1918, the effects of the British naval blockade were so severe that Germany would not be able to continue for very much longer.

Canada did not have a navy except for 2 ships and 350 men, and the Royal Navy protected the Canadian coasts.

However, the Canadian Navy took control of examining ships going overseas, directing shipping in Canadian ports, radio and telegraph services, engaged in mine sweeping and did patrol work.

When the submarine threat increased the Canadian Navy increased its fleet to 36 vessels.

Canada also provided men and ships for the Allied powers and the Canadian shipbuilding industry built a considerable number of ships.

Approximately 3,000 Canadians served in the Royal Navy.

July 20, 1918 Flight Sub Lt. Charles Wilfred LOTT

March 19, 1919 Leading Seaman Alfred COATES



When the war ended 150,000 Canadians were serving but close to 40,000 were not attached to the Canadian Corps. The Canadian Cavalry Brigade served with British units and others served with the Royal Navy and the Royal Flying Corps / Royal Air Force.

In the west of Europe Canadians served in skilled units……

  • Forestry workers cut the needed timber in the forests of Britain and created airfield for the Allies.

  • Tunnellers dug digging extensive tunnel systems, laying and guarding charges in mines.

  • Railway workers often worked under enemy fire, and they laid and maintained the railway system on the Western Front. Some workers even went to Palestine to repair the bridges.

  • Canadian Infantry served in Bermuda and St. Lucia.

  • Canadian hospitals operated in the Mediterranean and cared for the casualties from the Gallipoli Campaign.

  • Canadian Engineers were on the Euphrates River and Tigris River operating barges.

  • Canadians trained American troops in the United States.

  • Canadians were engaged in battle with the Communists in Northern Russia and were sent to protect the ports from the enemy and preventing them from opening a second front.

  • Canadians went to Siberia in Eastern Russia.

  • Canadians were part of a force that occupied the port of Baku on the Caspian Sea to protect the oil fields from Turkey.



When Canada declared war in 1914, Canada had 5 Permanent Force Nursing Sisters and another 57 in reserve. By 1917, Canadian Nursing Sisters numbered 2,030 with 1,886 being posted overseas. These were very courageous and resolute women.

During the war years of World War I there were many progressive changes and innovations taking place in the military medical services. In the beginning, medical units were originally begun in hospitals but eventually the Casualty Clearing station was formed in the field near the front and the injured received more rapid and effective treatment.

The Casualty Clearing Station was where ambulances delivered the wounded so they could have their wounds evaluated, then treat and finally evacuate. Being so close to the front exposed the Nursing Sisters to the terror and great dangers of being at the front. These frontal areas were very often under artillery fire and enemy air raids. Casualty Clearing Stations suffered from the effects of fleas, lice and rats.

Other dangers for the Nursing Sisters came while they served on hospital ships which were subject to attacks from the enemy on or under the sea.

Nursing Sisters worked in all types of climates and under ancient working conditions.

There was a total of 3,141 Nursing Sisters who served and 45 Nursing Sisters died during World War I.

April 21, 1918 Nursing Sister / Lieutenant Anna Elizabeth WHITELY

May 27, 1919 Registered Nurse Florence Beatrice GRAHAM

July 29, 1919 Nursing Sister / Lieutenant Gertrude (Petty) DONALDSON

January 1, 1921 Nursing Sister / Lieutenant Bessie Maude HANNA



During the latter part of World War I the Spanish Influenza epidemic began to fell the men of the Canadian Corps in the trenches. These men saw the effects if this illness, they smelled the disease and they experienced the disease. Symptoms included being light headed, dizziness and nausea. Over 45,000 Canadian soldiers suffered from the disease and 700 would die from it. Many compared it to being attacked by gas.

When the men of the Canadian Corps returned home to Canada, they found that their families had suffered or were suffering from the illness and across Canada 50,000 citizens.

Urban communities seemed to suffer the most in terms of deaths but out in the rural areas of the country was where you would find abandoned homes with bodies in them and starved animals.

The first Canadian deaths took place in Victoriaville, Quebec. In places one could not go out unless they wore a mask, churches were closed and the parishioners read the sermon in the newspaper. Movie theatres, restaurants and schools were closed.

The Canadian Government failed the citizens of Canada at this time and failed to respond to the crisis. They were incompetent and put the responsibilities onto the cities, rural communities and local governments. Federal officials many times intervened which made the situation worse. The army went door to door conscripting men bringing the disease into Canadian homes.

Troopships bringing soldiers home were filled with the disease and the government sent a troop train to the west with the disease on board and Western Canada became infected.

When the war ended the citizens celebrated and paid with their lives as the disease was rapidly spreading.

Around the world the death toll was now between fifty and one hundred million. Very soon the Canadian Government founded Health Canada and Canadian citizens soon realized the government was responsible for it citizens.

The Spanish Influenza was fastest and most violent loss of life in modern history.

January 3, 1919 Cpl. Willis JACKSON; Cpl. Willis JOHNSTON

January 10, 1919 Pvt William Isaac CARTER

February 19, 1919 Sgt. William Marcus Grant FETTERLY

February 20, 1020 Pvt. Charles Arthur PARKER

March 3, 1920 Pvt. Emerson Stanley HOLMES



Over the course of this conflict 30 nations had been involved with 65 million citizens being involved. It is estimated 10 million men died, 29 million men were wounded, captured or missing. The cost is money is estimated to be hundred of billions of dollars.

In 1914, at the beginning of World War I, Canada was a territory and nothing more than being part of Britain overseas. By the end of the conflict in 1918, it is my belief that we had become an independent nation.

In 1914, the population of Canada was 8 million. Over 650,000 (8.125% of population) Canadians stood up, volunteered and served Canada when needed. Over 66,000 (10.15% of those who enlisted) Canadian men and women gave their lives with another 172,000 (26.46% of those who enlisted) being wounded physically and mentally.

The Canadian Corps and its Command structure adapted to what lay before them with planning, strategizing, bringing innovative methods designed to achieve their objective with minimum casualties. The earned the Canadian Corps a remarkable reputation on the Western Front from not only the Allied armies but from the German army as well.

The Canadian Corps became the shock troops of the Allied forces and the most effective military force on the Western Front. They were the most proficient military force on the Western Front and they were the most able force when it came to the grim and hazardous techniques needed to achieve their objective.

The Canadian efforts of the Canadian Corps won Canada a separate Peace Signature at the Treaty of Versailles ad this stated that Canada was now a nation of the world. This came from the events on the Somme, at Vimy Ridge, at Passchendaele, at Hill 70, at Regina Trench and at Mons.


They shall grow not old,

as we that are left grow old;

Age shall not weary them,

nor the years condemn.

At the going down of the sun

and in the morning

We will remember them.



February 4, 1916 Driver Archibald Christopher WRIGHT

April 26, 1916 Pvt. George WASHINGTON

October 31, 1916 Pvt. James Alexander LEONARD

February 3, 1918 Capt. William Gordon MacNEVIN

October 26, 1918 1st Class Air Mechanic Gordon Albert YOUNGBLUT

October 27, 1918 Pvt. John Thomas SULLIVAN

November 9, 1918 Pvt. Alexander IRVIN

December 31, 1918 Cpl. George E. SMITH

January 16, 1919 Pvt. Wilfred POCOCK

February 18, 1919 Lt.-Col. William John Ogilvie MALLOCH

May 30, 1919 Pvt. William Henry ERVINE

June 22, 1919 Pvt. Alexander FOOTE

August 6, 1919 Pvt. Lindsay BURROWS

August 10, 1919 Pvt. Frederick TUCKER

September 14, 1919 Gunner Templeton W. ACHESON

November 29, 1919 Pvt. Arthur Henry SHROPSHALL

December 1st Sapper John Robert HALL

December 7, 1919 Pvt. Harry Ray CANTELON

December 12, 1919 Cpt. Joseph Samuel ELLIOTT

December 29, 1919 Pvt. Edgar Albert PATTISON

February 4, 1920 Pvt. Wilson McSHERRY

February 5, 1920 Sgt. Arthur RILEY

March 27, 1920 Sgt. Harry Imrie DOUGALL

April 6, 1920 Pvt. James Gordon BROWN

July 1, 1920 Pvt. Charles McNAMARA

July 15, 1920 Sapper Albert Edward THOMAS

November 25, 1920 Pvt. John Egmond (Egmond) DETTMAN

December 10, 1920 Cadet Russell George SCOTT

December 20, 1920 Cpt. John Alexander WELLWOOD

July 3, 1921 Pvt. Thomas Henry WESTLAKE



January 15, 1919 Sapper Aylmer AITCHISON

January 25, 1919 Pvt. Wilbur John ROWE

March 10, 1919 Pvt. Grant Stuart HENDERSON


July 10, 1915 Pvt. David Laughlin AITCHISON

June 25, 1916 Pvt. Robert George LUCAS

November 15, 1916 Pvt. Arthur Cecil WATTERS

November 22, 1917 Pvt. William Gordon ADAIR

December 15, 1918 Sapper Theodore Henry ILSE

December 23, 1918 Pvt. Harry TWYFORD

February 2, 1919 Sapper James WELTON

April 1, 1919 Pvt. Albert Wellington JARMAN


December 13, 1918 Pvt. Hector James SLATTERY

February 21, 1919 Pvt. Harold Vernon MENNEL


September 13, 1921 Major William John KNIGHT


Body area